Spina Bifida originates from the word pertaining to " break up spine in Latin (Webster, 1997). It is just a serious labor and birth defect that happens when the tissues surrounding the developing spinal-cord of a unborn infant doesn't close properly. The part of a grouping of birth defects named neural tube defects (Spinal Bifida Relationship of America, 2006). The neural conduit is the wanting structure that eventually evolves into the child's brain and spinal cord and the tissues that enclose all of them. In regular circumstances, the neural tube forms in the developing baby early in the pregnancy and closes by the 26th day after conceiving (Spinal Bifida Association of America, 2006). Later, the top of this conduit becomes the baby's mind, and the the rest of the tube becomes the baby's spinal-cord. In infants with spina bifida, a percentage of the nerve organs tube fails to develop or close correctly, causing problems in the spinal-cord and in the bones that comprise the central source (Gilman & Newman, 1996). This can as well occur in the center or top end in the spine yet is most common in the reduced spine. Teacher Nicholas Tulp gave spina bifida thier name and provided the first formative description of the impairment. Although the term and true medical description are relatively recent, approximately spina bifida occurred practically 12, 1000 years ago. Types of Spina Bifida
You will discover three types of spina bifida: spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele: Spina bifida occulta
Spina bifida occulta is a mildest and most common sort of this disorder. It generally only entails a minor mistake with one or two of the vertebrae and that usually reveals no symptoms nor requires treatment. When an infant is born with spina bifida occulta, the skin is normal and protects the problems of the spine. Spina bifida occulta virtually means " a hidden spot on the spine, " as well as for most people, this kind of spot will stay hidden. It is estimated that approximately 10 % of the American population offers spina bifida occulta which most are not even aware they may have it (Spinal Bifida Connection of America, 2006). Rarely spina bifida occulta will cause problems if a child increases to teenage years. By this time in the child's life, the spinal cord has become attached to the central source, so when the growth spurts of teenage life begins; the nerves of the spinal cord become stretched. The result can be troubles such as weak point and numbness in the legs, bladder infections, and incontinence (lack of bladder and bowel control) (Spinal Bifida Association of America, 2006). The more the spinal cord is definitely stretched, the worse the symptoms turn into. Surgery to relieve these symptoms by reducing the tension for the spinal cord is easy and often effective. Meningocele
In this least prevalent type of spina bifida, the meninges (membrane surrounding the spinal cord) protrude through the opening creating a group or sac on the back. More severe than spina bifida occulta, meningocele can however be mended through medical procedures with little if any nerve destruction resulting. The surgery is conducted at any time during infancy. With meningoceles, the spinal cord has developed normally and is undamaged (Spinal Bifida Connection of America, 2006). The child, therefore , is without neurological challenges. Myelomeningocele
Myelomeningocele is the most serious form of spina bifida, occurring nearly when for every you, 000 live births (Spinal Bifida Connection of America, 2006). Pertaining to infants delivered with a myelomeningocele, the spinal-cord does not form properly and a portion with the undeveloped wire protrudes throughout the back (Williamson, 1997). A sac that contain cerebrospinal liquid and bloodstream surrounds the protruding wire, which is usually not covered by skin area so that the spirit and tissues are revealed. Between 70 and 80 percent of infants created with myelomeningocele also knowledge hydrocephalus (Spinal Bifida Association of America, 2006). Hydrocephalus is an excess build up of spinal fluid on the head that will trigger brain...
Recommendations: Blum L. (2000). The adolescent with spina bifida. Clinical Pediatrics 22: 331- 34.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Gathered April 3, 2006 from http://www.cdc.gov
Gilman S, Winans Newman T
Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (2006). A Study to Evaluate Folate Levels in Girls Taking Oral Contraceptives.
Leger, R. and Meerpol, E. (1998). Children in danger: Latex allergy or intolerance and spina bifida. Log of The chidhood Nursing, six: 371-76.
Mazur, J. and Doig, Watts. (2001). Memory foam management of high-level spina bifida: Early walking compared to early use of wheelchair. Record of Bone tissue and Joint Surgery, 71A: 56-61.
McLone, D. (2000). Continuing ideas in the supervision of spina bifida. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 18: 254-56.
Milunsky, A. & Bruell, S. (1998). Multivitamin pill /folic chemical p supplementation at the begining of pregnancy decreases the prevalence of nerve organs tube flaws. Journal in the American Medical Association, 262: 2847-52.
National Institute of Child Health and Human being Development (2005). Genetics of Spina Bifida. Office of Rare Diseases, Houston, Tx.
Spina Bifida Association of America. Facts about Spina Bifida. Retrieved on April several, 2006 coming from http://sbaa.org/html/sbaa_facts.html.
Spina Bifida Relationship of America (n. g. ) The Challenges of Spina Bifida. Retrieved The spring 3, 2006 from http://www.sbaa.org