Designing Secondary language Teaching Tests

 Designing Second Language Teaching Experiments Essay

Second Language Exploration

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Structural Minimality, CP and the initial state in second language purchase

Rakesh M. Bhatt and Barbara Hancin-Bhatt

Second Language Analysis 2002 18: 348

DOI: 10. 1191/0267658302sr210oa

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Second Language Research 18, 4 (2002); pp. 348–392

Structural Minimality, CP plus the

initial point out in secondary language

acquisition

Rakesh M. Bhatt and Barbara Hancin-Bhatt University

of The state of illinois at Urbana-Champaign

This article thinks the current debate on the preliminary state of second language obtain (L2) and presents critical empirical facts from Hindi learners of English as an L2 that supports the claim which the CP (complementizer phase) is initially lacking from the grammar of L2 learners. From the predictions of Full Transfer (Schwartz and Sprouse, year 1994; 1996), your data we present suggest that L2 learners start off without a CLUBPENGUIN and then graduate to a level where overt expressions of CP (complementizer phase) are actually manifest. Even though the lack of proof of CP appears to support the Minimal Forest / Partially Transfer (MT/PT) hypothesis (Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1996a; 1996b), we display that the MT/PT hypothesis likewise fails to honour all the empirical facts. To account for the patterns within our data, we all propose Strength Minimality – that clausal projections are IPs – as a speculation on the first state of L2 buy. We argue that the Strength Minimality speculation accounts for the complete array CP-acquisition facts in Hindi-speaking scholars of English as a great L2.

I Introduction

Just lately, several generative studies of second language (L2) acquisition have focused attention on the research of the exact properties of interlanguage grammars, including the

accessibility to functional groups and the part of the 1st language (L1) grammar (Eubank, 1993/94; 1996; Lakshmanan and Selinker, 1994; Schwartz and Sprouse, year 1994; 1996; Epstein et al., 1996; Grondin and White-colored, 1996; White colored, 1996; Vainikka and YoungScholten, 1996a; 1996b; PrГ©vost, 1997; Paradis ainsi que al., 1998). Although these kinds of L2 researchers are united in their declare that the principles of Universal Sentence structure (UG) guidebook (and constrain) L2 advancement, there is difference about the extent in the role from the L1 grammar (transfer) in L2 advancement, especially in the initial phases (compare Eubank and Schwartz, 1996). Two proposals specifically represent contrasting perspectives on the role of the L1 inside the Address pertaining to correspondence: Rakesh M. Bhatt, Department of Linguistics, University or college of The state of illinois, 4088 FLB, 707 S. Mathews Ave, Urbana, ARIANNE 61801, USA; email: [email protected] edu В© Arnold 2002

10. 1191/0267658302sr210oa

Downloaded coming from slr. sagepub. com for University Collection Utrecht on March 19, 2012

R akesh Meters. Bhatt and Barbara Hancin-Bhatt

349

construction of L2 syntactic composition. 1 1, the Little Trees (MT) hypothesis (Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1994; 1996a;

1996b), promises that only lexical projections, such as verb expression (VP), copy from the L1 (Partial Transfer), whereas the functional projections – elizabeth. g., inflectional phrase (IP) and complementizer phrase (CP) – are acquired later in response towards the L2 suggestions as it treats the X'-theoretic principles of UG. The other, the total Transfer / Full Gain access to (FT/FA) hypothesis (Schwartz...

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Secondary language Research 18, 4 (2002); pp. 348–392

Structural Minimality, CP as well as the

Contrary to the predictions of Full Transfer (Schwartz and Sprouse, 1994;

1996), the data we present claim that L2 scholars start out with out a CP

support the Nominal Trees / Partial Transfer (MT/PT) hypothesis (Vainikka

and Young-Scholten, 1996a; 1996b), all of us show that the MT/PT speculation also

accessibility to functional types and the function of the initial

language (L1) grammar (Eubank, 1993/94; mil novecentos e noventa e seis; Lakshmanan and

Selinker, year 1994; Schwartz and Sprouse, year 1994; 1996; Epstein et approach.,

1996; Grondin and White, 1996; White, 1996; Vainikka and YoungScholten, 1996a; 1996b; PrГ©vost, 1997; Paradis et al., 1998)

(compare Eubank and Schwartz, 1996). Two proposals particularly

represent different perspectives around the role of the L1 inside the

Address pertaining to correspondence: Rakesh M. Bhatt, Department of Linguistics, University of

Illinois, 4088 FLB, 707 S i9000

Downloaded via slr. sagepub. com for University Collection Utrecht upon March nineteen, 2012

R akesh M

(MT) speculation (Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1994; 1996a;

1996b), claims that only lexical projections, such as action-word phrase

Copy / Complete Access (FT/FA) hypothesis (Schwartz and Sprouse,

1994; 1996), claims that the entire L1 grammar, which includes functional

position of CP remains unclear (see Kaplan, 1993; Lakshmanan,

1993/94; Lakshmanan and Selinker, 1994; Epstein et al., 1996;

Grondin and White colored, 1996; Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1996a),

making the research base on functional projections incomplete

(= Inversion) to Comp (compare Rizzi, 1996). In case the learners are unsuccessful

either to invert (subject–auxiliary verb inversion) or to approach w hphrase to the Spec-CP, or both equally, then we certainly have evidence to compliment

There is also a third position, according to which ‘transfer is not part of the buy

model' (Epstein et 's., 1996)

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